Hans Nielsen Hauge: The Persecuted Lay Preacher Who Saved Christianity in Norway

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This Week in AG History–June 14, 1947
By Darrin Rodgers

Also published in PE News, 11 June 2015

Hans Nielsen Hauge (1771-1824), a lay preacher who spent decades promoting revival in Norway, helped to transform the religious and social landscape of his homeland. Hauge’s story was featured in the June 14, 1947, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel. Hauge’s testimony demonstrated that Pentecostals’ emphasis on reform and spiritual renewal had firm roots in the broader Christian tradition.

In 1796, Hauge experienced a spiritual awakening (which he termed “spirit baptism”) while he was ploughing his father’s farm. This experience with God transformed Hauge’s life. He began studying the Bible and shared the gospel and his testimony wherever he found an audience. He preached with great power and insisted that each person should have “living faith.”

According to Hauge, church membership alone did not make a person a Christian. At the time, exceedingly few people attended State churches. In the capital city of Christiania, which had a population of about 10,000, evidence shows that only about 20 people attended regular services in the State church.

Hauge inspired a large movement which revived Christianity in Norway. It is estimated that half of Norwegians experienced salvation under the ministry of Hauge and his fellow evangelists. Hauge not only promoted lay ministry, he also encouraged women to share the gospel. The first female preacher in the Haugean movement, Sara Oust, began preaching in 1799. For the next 100 years, Norway became known as “a land of revivals.”

Hauge not only brought a spiritual rebirth to Norway, but also an economic revival. He established numerous factories and mills and is credited with bringing the industrial revolution to his nation.

The informal network of Christians developed by Hauge challenged the authority of the Lutheran State church. Norway did not have freedom of religious assembly, and it was illegal to hold a religious meeting without a licensed minister present. Although he never departed from Lutheran theology, Hauge was arrested at least fourteen times and endured great suffering in jail. His health failed in prison, resulting in Hauge’s premature death.

Hauge’s legacy, in many ways, lives on in the Pentecostal movement. Just as the Haugean movement began to die down, Pentecostalism emerged at the turn of the twentieth century. In Norway, early Pentecostals identified themselves in the revival tradition of Hauge.

Hauge’s influence also extended to America. Followers of Hauge who had settled in Minnesota and the Dakotas experienced a revival in the 1890s and early 1900s that included healings and speaking in tongues. When various revival movements coalesced in the early 1900s to form what is now known as the Pentecostal movement, many of these Scandinavian immigrants became leaders within the Pentecostal movement. G. Raymond Carlson (1918-1999), for instance, came from a Norwegian Haugean background in North Dakota and ultimately served as general superintendent of the Assemblies of God (1986-1993).

The Pentecostal Evangel article lauded Hauge as “God’s firebrand” and a “martyr at the early age of 53.” But Hauge’s death did not signal the end to the revival movement he started. Rather, the article noted, “It was the beginning of a new day, a new church and a new Christianity throughout the land.”

Read the entire article, “Beginnings in Norway,” by Armin Gesswein, on page 12 of the June 14, 1947, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel.

Also featured in this issue:

• “An Old-Time Methodist Sermon,” by J. Narver Gortner
• “Neglected Duty,” by Arvid Ohrnell
• “Delivering the Demon-Bound,” by Ernest S. Williams
And many more!

Click here to read this issue now.

Pentecostal Evangel archived editions courtesy of the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center.

Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: archives@ag.org

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Missionary H.B. Garlock’s 1948 Eloquent Condemnation of Colonialism and Racial Discrimination


This Week in AG History–June 5, 1948
By Darrin Rodgers

Also published in PE News, 4 June 2015

H. B. Garlock, a long-time Assemblies of God missionary to Africa, reported on his extensive travels throughout Africa in an article published in the June 5, 1948, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel.

Garlock provided readers with a vivid description of the colonialism and oppression on the African continent. He recounted, “We saw the black man slapped, cuffed, kicked, abused and manhandled. Thousands of them are caught, and made to work in mines or on roads at very low wages. The commodities that the white man enjoys such as cocoa, tea, coffee, rubber, mahogany, palm oil, gold and diamonds, represent the forced labor, toil, sweat and many times the tears of an enslaved or underpaid black man.”

Responding to these inhumane conditions, Garlock condemned racial segregation and discrimination. He wrote, “to discriminate against a person created in the image of God because of the color of his skin is inhuman, un-Christian, and unpardonable.” He furthermore likened the plight of the African to Christ, noting that the African “bears a heavy cross.”

Notably, Garlock condemned racial segregation and discrimination at a time when racial strife was increasing in America. Anticipating criticism from some American readers who might call him a “race baiter,” Garlock acknowledged the existence of racial tensions in the United States. “Whose fault is it?” Responding to this rhetorical question, Garlock suggested: “Our fathers have eaten green apples and their children have the stomach-ache.”

Garlock carefully contrasted oppressive colonialism to the indigenous church principle practiced by the Assemblies of God. Garlock related numerous stories about mature and effective African Pentecostal leaders, encouraging readers to support Assemblies of God missionaries who work alongside indigenous African churches.

Read H. B. Garlock’s article, “Africa and Her People,” on pages 2-3 and 12-14 of the June 5, 1948, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel.

Also featured in this issue:
• “Healing for All,” by J. M. Mullens
• “Prostrated under Divine Power,” by J. Narver Gortner
And many more!

Click here to read this issue now.

Pentecostal Evangel archived editions courtesy of the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center.

Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: archives@ag.org

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Elizabeth Sisson’s 1905 Vision of a Worldwide Revival


This Week in AG History–May 30, 1925
By Darrin Rodgers

Also published in PE News, 28 May 2015

Elizabeth Sisson (1843-1934), a prominent evangelist, church planter, and writer, recalled that she “wept for joy” after reading reports in both secular and religious newspapers about the Welsh Revival of 1904-1905.

Twenty years later, Sisson recounted her memories of the revival in Wales in a Pentecostal Evangel article. She was ministering in San Francisco in 1905 when she first learned about the revival. Friends from London mailed her daily newspaper headlines that carried news of a powerful move of God that filled churches across the small nation located adjacent to England. She wrote that “God had captured the English press” and had “taken possession of the church buildings irrespective of denomination.”

Sisson soon sensed that the Welsh Revival was part of a much larger movement. She recalled, “One day God spoke through my whole being, ‘This is not a Welsh revival; this is the beginning of a world-wide revival.'”

Before the Welsh Revival, Sisson had never before heard of a worldwide revival. In her estimation, previous revivals had been largely regional phenomena. She wrote, “The phrase ‘world-wide revival’ staggered me.”

Sisson opened up an atlas and ran her finger over every country on the maps. She prayed over each nation and felt impressed that she needed to be prepared to take part in the great harvest of souls. She wrote that she sobbed with joy when she realized that she would be privileged to participate in “the immensity of God’s harvest plan of Pentecost.” She anticipated that millions of people would accept Christ in the coming revival.

This prediction came true; the Welsh Revival was one of a series of overlapping revival movements that rapidly spread across the national divides. The revival in Wales helped to spark the Azusa Street Revival (1906-1909) in Los Angeles, which became one of the focal points of the global Pentecostal movement.

Sisson recognized that missions was an essential aspect of this coming revival. How would this great harvest of souls occur? She wrote that “the provision of the fullness of His Spirit” was meant “for all believers,” so that each Christian “might disciple other disciples.”

Sisson went on to become a respected leader in the Pentecostal movement and transferred her ordination to the Assemblies of God in 1917. Her admonition to the readers of the Pentecostal Evangel in 1925 still rings true today: “every blood-washed soul that hears these words” is called to be a part of this “world-wide revival.”

Read Sisson’s entire article, “Reminiscences,” on pages 4-5 of the May 30, 1925, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel. Also featured in this issue:

• “Rising into the Heavenlies,” by Smith Wigglesworth

• “Love Triumphant,” by Violet Schoonmaker

And many more!

Click here to read this issue now.

Pentecostal Evangel archived editions courtesy of the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center.

Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: archives@ag.org

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Early Church of God of Prophecy Periodical Now Online – White Wing Messenger (1923-1954)

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The early history of the Church of God of Prophecy (COGOP) is now easier to access than ever! The Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center recently completed digitization of the COGOP’s flagship periodical, the White Wing Messenger, from 1923 to 1954. These years (consisting of 765 issues) are now accessible on the Consortium of Pentecostal Archives website.

The COGOP is a significant classical Pentecostal denomination with over one million members in over 130 countries worldwide. Established in 1903 and with headquarters in Cleveland, Tennessee, the COGOP shares a common history with another classical Pentecostal denomination, the Church of God (Cleveland, TN). In recent years, the COGOP has been forging closer relationships with its sister Pentecostal fellowships.

The digitization of the White Wing Messenger was itself a cooperative effort across the denominational divides. The Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (the archives of the Assemblies of God) completed the digitization of the project. The idea for the project originated with Tim Carter, Director of the Arise Shine Pentecostal Historical Center. Carter suggested to Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center Director Darrin Rodgers that the White Wing Messenger needed to be digitized. The Arise Shine Pentecostal Historical Center is the archives of the [Ephesus] Church of God, a small denomination which has its roots in the COGOP. Rodgers approached Dr. David Roebuck, Director of the Dixon Pentecostal Research Center (the archives of the Church of God [Cleveland, TN]), and asked him if he could make contact with the appropriate person within the COGOP to secure permission. Roebuck contacted Paul Holt, who serves as Executive Director of Finance and Administration for the COGOP, who agreed to allow the magazine to be digitized. Through Roebuck’s encouragement, the COGOP became a member of the Consortium of Pentecostal Archives (CPA), a cooperative effort of Pentecostal archives, denominations, and publishing houses. Other CPA members include the denominational archives of the Assemblies of God, Church of God (Cleveland, TN), the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, and the International Pentecostal Holiness Church. The digitized issues of the White Wing Messenger are now accessible and text-searchable on the CPA website.

The years of the White Wing Messenger that have been digitized (1923-1954) are important because of the rarity of those issues and their importance to the formation of the COGOP. During these early years, the White Wing Messenger was published in a large newspaper format and very few copies survived. Starting in 1955, the magazine changed to a magazine format, and the denomination began selling annual bound volumes of the magazine. Bound volumes of these later years are located in various libraries and archives and are accessible to researchers. However, the years 1923 to 1954 were not very accessible to researchers.

Paul Holt expressed gratitude for the assistance in preserving and promoting the COGOP’s heritage. He stated, “we are deeply appreciative to the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center for their willingness to digitize this historic material.  We are also pleased to join hands with our friends in the Pentecostal movement to celebrate our rich heritage while also moving forward to touch the world with the good news of Jesus Christ.” Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center Digital Archivist William Molenaar supervised the digitization project and was assisted by Archives Specialists Michelle Rahmoeller and Caleb Whitlow.

Announcement of the digitized periodicals in the June 2015 issue of the White White Messenger

Announcement of the digitized periodicals in the June 2015 issue of the White White Messenger

Selected issues of the White Wing Messenger are linked below:

September 15, 1923

March 27, 1926

February 1, 1936

October 16, 1943

September 1, 1951

December 18, 1954

All 765 digitized issues of the White Wing Messenger are accessible on the CPA website: www.pentecostalarchives.org

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Evangelism is not Optional: Christians will either Evangelize or Apostatize

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This Week in AG History–May 23, 1954
By Darrin Rodgers

Also published in PE News, 21 May 2015

Could there be a task that is more important or more daunting than the evangelization of the world? James Stewart, in a 1954 Pentecostal Evangel article, challenged readers to creatively and proactively fulfill the Great Commission. He wrote, “The magnitude of the unfinished task forces us to witness in unconventional places, at unconventional times, with an unconventional approach. It is our duty to go to the unsaved with the Gospel and not wait until they come to us.”

Stewart appealed to the testimonies of believers from centuries past to inspire the current generation to reach the lost for Christ. He noted that many heralded evangelists ministered outside the walls of church buildings. John Wesley preached in a cemetery, atop his father’s tombstone. The Apostle Paul preached Christ on Mars Hill among the pagan temples and Greek philosophers. Dwight L. Moody accepted Christ in a shoe shop.Stewart implored readers to think of the church not as a building, but as a body of believers. Past revivals, he noted, occurred when Christians shared the gospel “in the market squares, circus tents, village greens, prisons, public houses, and everywhere the unsaved frequented.”

While holding large evangelistic services in public areas has long been important in evangelical and Pentecostal churches, Stewart admonished that evangelism must also be personal. “Mass evangelism,” he wrote, “will never be a substitute for personal evangelism.”

Personal evangelism, according to Stewart, required the involvement of “ordinary, common believers.” The great revivals of the past involved carpenters, farmers, miners, street cleaners, teachers, and men and women from all walks of life who “went forth with flaming fire.” The Bible and church history teach that professional clergy alone cannot bring revival; a true move of God must catch fire at the grassroots.

Evangelism is not optional for Christians. Stewart wrote that Christians will “either evangelize or apostatize.” His concluding remarks encouraged believers to consecrate themselves to God and to seek the baptism of the Holy Spirit.

He wrote, “Let us dedicate our lives, talents, possessions, and time to the sacred task of world-wide witness. We are couriers of the Cross. The task is great but not impossible. The Holy Ghost is here to empower us. Without the baptism of power our ministry is in vain.”

Read the article, “The Church is Challenged!” by James Stewart, on pages 4, 10 and 11 of the May 23, 1954, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel.

Also featured in this issue:
• “Honor the Holy Spirit!” by P. S. Jones
• “How Spurgeon Found Christ”
And many more!

Click here to read this issue now.

Pentecostal Evangel archived editions courtesy of the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center.

Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: archives@ag.org

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What is the Secret to a Successful Pentecostal Church? Read this Pastor’s Answer from 1946!

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This Week in AG History–May 18, 1946
By Darrin Rodgers

Also published in PE News, 14 May 2015

What is the distinctive feature in a Pentecostal worship service? The answer, according to a 1946 Pentecostal Evangel article by P. S. Jones, is “the prominence given to the prayer room.”

Early Pentecostal churches usually dedicated a room to prayer, where earnest believers would intercede during the preaching service and where prayer would continue long after the benediction had been pronounced. Jones asserted, “Pentecostal prayer rooms are truly the power-houses of the assemblies. Everything else can be counted of secondary importance in the church’s program.”

According to Jones, the success of a ministry is proportionate to the prayer life of those involved in the ministry. The “urgent necessity” of every pastor, he wrote, “is to see that the prayer life of his people is maintained at white heat.”

Jones described how an active private prayer life is essential if Christians are to effectively engage in spiritual warfare. The “treasures of heaven,” he wrote, are often only gained by spending hours in “hot, animated, boiling-over prayer.”

What happens when a church neglects prayer? Jones warned, “When the thrill and throb of the Holy Ghost are lost through prayerlessness, all kinds of substitutes will be tried,” including social functions, entertaining preaching, and other amusements. He described these as mere “camouflages” that attempt to hide “the fact that the real thing has been lost.”

According to Jones, “Pentecost can very well do without the carnal decorations and the tinsel of this pleasure-crazed world, but it can never do without its prayer room, its prayer-loving pastor, and its prayer warriors.”

Read Jones’ article, “A Unique Pentecostal Feature,” in the May 18, 1946, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel.

Also featured in this issue:
• “A Hidden Power Now Revealed: Lessons from the Discovery of the Atomic Bomb,” by Leslie Barrowcliff
• “The Pentecostal Movement,” by Howard Carter
• “A Russian Jew’s Testimony,” by Moses Prostchansky

And many more! Click here to read this issue now.

Pentecostal Evangel archived editions courtesy of Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center.

Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: archives@ag.org

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Former Kansans Peggy Musgrove and Leota Morar Donate Pentecostal Materials and Books

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Peggy Musgrove (left) and Leota Morar (right) donated materials to the FPHC and the AG Used Book Clearinghouse.

By Glenn Gohr

Peggy Musgrove, former national director of Women’s Ministries and widow of Kansas District Superintendent J. Derald Musgrove (1929-2012), recently donated materials from her husband’s collection of sermon notes, district newsletters, photographs, memorabilia, and miscellaneous items to the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center. She also donated her husband’s collection of books to the Assemblies of God Used Book Clearinghouse.

Derald Musgrove’s sister, Leota Morar (a former Assemblies of God missionary to the Philippines), also donated newsletters, obituaries, magazines, tracts, and other materials to the Flower Pentecostal Heritage.

One item of interest donated by Peggy is a travel journal from 1963. The entry from February 12, 1963, written during a trip to San Salvador, El Salvador, mentioned a visit to the church pastored by Assemblies of God missionaries John and Lois Bueno. Musgrove wrote that she witnessed an indigenous man who could not read or write (and who did not know English) give a message in tongues in the English language. She documented the message he gave in the journal: “Thank you Jesus Christ. I want to be filled more and more with Thee and become more like Thee every day, every week, every month. Thank you my Lord.” John Bueno, who later served as the executive director of Assemblies of God World Missions (1997-2011), verified this account.

The Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center, located in the Assemblies of God national office in Springfield, Missouri, is the largest Pentecostal archive and research center in the world. In 2006, the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center, 4WRD Resource Distributors, and the libraries of the Assemblies of God Theological Seminary and Evangel University formed the Assemblies of God Used Book Clearinghouse, which helps direct used books back into ministry. Books from the Musgrove and Morar collections that were not kept for the Heritage Center collection were given to 4WRD Resource Distributors, which makes books accessible to missionaries, overseas Bible schools, individuals outside the U.S., and stateside non-profit organizations.

Do you have Pentecostal materials and other Christian academic books that need a good home? Please consider giving them to the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center and the Assemblies of God Used Book Clearinghouse. While all materials are accepted (even books outside of the FPHC’s collecting interests), the following are of particular interest: 1) Anything related to the Assemblies of God or the broader Pentecostal and charismatic movements, including books, tracts, pamphlets, magazines, unpublished manuscripts, audio recordings, video recordings, correspondence, scrapbooks, local church histories, and artifacts. 2) Any books religious in nature (including theology, church history, missions, biographies, commentaries, etc.). 3) Any academic books (in general, books with numerous footnotes or endnotes, or those published by university presses).

Please contact the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center if you have materials to donate: 1-877-840-5200 / archives@ag.org / http://www.iFPHC.org

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