Category Archives: Education

Samuel Jamieson: How a Presbyterian Minister was Baptized in the Holy Spirit

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Samuel and Hattie Jamieson, circa 1919


This Week in AG History — January 31, 1931

By Darrin Rodgers
Originally published on PE-News, 28 January 2016

Samuel A. Jamieson (1857-1933), one of the founding fathers of the Assemblies of God, previously served as a denominational leader in the Presbyterian church in Minnesota. Despite having all the outward signs of ministerial success, Jamieson felt that inside he was spiritually dry. Jamieson shared his testimony in the January 31, 1931, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel.

Jamieson, a graduate of Wabash College and Lane Theological Seminary, was ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1881. A pastor and church planter, he also served as superintendent over home missions for five Minnesota counties. He organized 35 Presbyterian congregations and 25 new churches were built under his direction.

Jamieson appeared to be a model minister, but he continued to grow more and more spiritually weary. What could he do? Jamieson and his wife, Hattie, had reached a point of desperation when they heard about the Azusa Street Revival (1906-1909) in Los Angeles, which was a focal point of the emerging Pentecostal movement. They believed it might be an answer to their prayers.

In 1908, Hattie Jamieson went to Atlanta, Georgia, where she attended services at the Pentecostal Mission for over three months. She was Spirit-baptized, and she testified that “He [God] flooded my soul with peace and joy.” She returned home and encouraged her husband to resign his position and also seek the Baptism.

Jamieson rejected his wife’s plea, fearing that identifying with the Pentecostals would be costly. “For me to give up my position of honor and my good salary,” he wrote, “would eventually lead me to the poorhouse.” Hattie continued to reason with him, saying that he needed to be “willing to pay the price” to follow God.

Finally, after three years, Jamieson relented. He began praying earnestly and, he recalled, “the Lord soon removed from my mind all hindrances to tarrying for the Baptism.” In 1911 he resigned his position in Duluth, Minnesota, and joined with Florence Crawford’s Apostolic Faith Mission in Portland, Oregon. The following year, they moved on to Dallas, Texas, where Jamieson was Spirit-baptized under the ministry of healing evangelist Maria Woodworth-Etter.

Jamieson attended the organizational meeting of the Assemblies of God in April 1914, and he became a noted pastor, educator, and executive presbyter in the Fellowship. He served as principal of Midwest Bible School (Auburn, Nebraska), which was the first Bible school owned by the General Council of the Assemblies of God. He also authored two books of sermons published by Gospel Publishing House: The Great Shepherd (1924) and Pillars of Truth (1926).

Jamieson, in his 1931 article, wrote that the baptism in the Holy Spirit changed his ministry in the following three ways. First, Jamieson realized that he had been relying upon his academic training rather than upon the Holy Spirit in his sermon preparation. He literally burned up his old sermon notes, humorously noting, “they were so dry that they burned like tinder.” Second, Jamieson wrote, “After I received my Baptism the Bible was practically a new book to me. I understood it as I never had done before. Preaching under the anointing became a delight, and my love for souls was very much increased.” Third, Jamieson wrote, “It increased my love for God and my fellow men, gave me a more consuming compassion for souls, and changed my view of the ministry so that it was no longer looked upon as a profession but as a calling.”

Samuel A. Jamieson’s testimony beautifully captures the early Pentecostal worldview. This worldview, at its core, included a transformational experience with God that brought people into a deeper life in Christ and empowered them to be witnesses. Jamieson concluded his 1931 article with the following admonition: “To those who would read this narrative I would suggest that if you want to succeed in your Christian work you should seek the Baptism in the Holy Spirit.” Jamieson hoped that his testimony would spur others to seek what he had found.

Read the article, “How a Presbyterian Preacher Received the Baptism,” by S. A. Jamieson, on page 2 of the January 31, 1931, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel.

Also featured in this issue:

• “The Thrilling Experience of a Congo Missionary,” by Alva Walker

• “The Pentecostal People and What They Believe,” by Stanley H. Frodsham

• “After Twenty Years in Egypt,” by Lillian Trasher

And many more!

Click here to read this issue now.

Pentecostal Evangel archived editions courtesy of Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center.

Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: archives@ag.org
Website: www.iFPHC.org

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What do Wittenberg University, Oxford University, and Chi Alpha Have in Common?

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Chi Alpha Chaplain J. Calvin Holsinger (center) conducting Bible study with students at Southwest Missouri State College, 1953.


This Week in AG History — October 2, 1955

By Darrin Rodgers
Originally published on PE-News, 1 October 2015

College campuses birthed many of the world’s great Christian revival and reform movements. This fact was not lost on J. Calvin Holsinger, who pioneered Chi Alpha, the Assemblies of God ministry to college students.

In a Pentecostal Evangel article published 60 years ago, Holsinger recounted how Martin Luther, a professor at Wittenberg University, helped to spark the 16th century Protestant Reformation. He also noted that the great Methodist revival of the 18th and 19th centuries began when John Wesley, an Oxford University professor, gathered students for prayer and Bible study. The students in this “Holy Club,” as it came to be called, helped to spread revival across England and, ultimately, around the world.

Even the 20th century Pentecostal movement, Holsinger observed, had origins on a college campus. When students at Bethel Bible School in Topeka, Kansas, gathered in 1900 to study the Book of Acts, they experienced a profound spiritual outpouring that helped to birth the worldwide Pentecostal movement.

Why should the Assemblies of God support ministries to college students? To Holsinger, the answer to this question was obvious: history shows that students led many of the greatest revival movements. He asked, “It has been true in the past; why not today?”

Holsinger, at the time, was a professor at Central Bible Institute in Springfield, Missouri, and served as campus adviser for the National Christ’s Ambassadors Department, which was the youth organization of the Assemblies of God. He also led a college ministry at Southwest Missouri State College (now Missouri State University), one of a handful of AG campus ministries at non-Assemblies of God schools around the nation.

In 1953, Holsinger began developing plans for a national AG campus ministry at non-Assemblies of God schools. He developed manuals that defined the new organization’s purpose and mission, and he conceived a name — Chi Alpha. In 1955, the fledgling national campus ministry featured three services to college students: a Campus Ambassador magazine offered free to all Assemblies of God college students; local chapters on college campuses; and college chaplains.

By the 2014-15 school year, Chi Alpha had grown to 314 chapters on campuses in the United States, served by 871 affiliated staff. Chi Alpha is now the fourth-largest evangelical campus organization in the United States, after Baptist Collegiate Ministry, Cru (formerly Campus Crusade for Christ), and InterVarsity Christian Fellowship.

Read the article by J. Calvin Holsinger, “A Campus Witness,” on pages 17 and 20 of the Oct. 2, 1955, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel.

Also featured in this issue:
* “Witnessing of the Acts 1:8 Variety,” by Robert L. Brandt
* “Witch Doctor Saved!” by John L. Franklin.

Click here to read this issue now.

Pentecostal Evangel archived editions courtesy of the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center.

Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: archives@ag.org

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Christ’s Ambassadors, the Assemblies of God Youth Organization, Originated in California in 1925

This Week in AG History — September 25, 1926

By Darrin Rodgers
Originally published on PE-News, 24 September 2015

One of the most important formative experiences for several generations of Assemblies of God young people was participation in “Christ’s Ambassadors” — the Assemblies of God national youth organization.

Christ’s Ambassadors had its origin in 1925, when Assemblies of God young people in Oakland, California, formed the Pentecostal Ambassadors for Christ. Similar groups existed in Fresno and Los Angeles under the names Christian Crusaders and Christ’s Ambassadors. Ultimately, the three groups merged under the name Christ’s Ambassadors.The idea of organizing Assemblies of God youth into a national organization quickly gained momentum. The September 25, 1926, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel included “an appeal to the young people” to begin new a new national youth organization, patterned after the groups pioneered in California.

Some people feared giving too much power to the younger generation, lest they have a platform to promote agendas that might undermine the church. However, the 1926 article stressed the important role of young people in the Assemblies of God. “It is the natural prerogative of young people to do the aggressive work,” the article noted. “Unless the latent powers and talents [of youth] are harnessed and developed for God’s service they will be used for the world or for the devil.”

Earlier in 1926, the name Christ’s Ambassadors had been adopted as the title of a new weekly Assemblies of God young people’s periodical. When the national organization was formed, it seemed fitting to name the group Christ’s Ambassadors. The name stuck, and Assemblies of God young people’s groups across the United States were known as Christ’s Ambassadors for the next 50 years.

Read the article, “An Appeal to the Young People,” on page 6 of the September 25, 1926, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel.

Also featured in this issue:

• “The Second Coming of Christ,” by D. L. Moody

• “How to Enjoy Your Money Forever,” by J. Narver Gortner

• “Ten Ways to Kill a Church,” by J. Logan Stuart

And many more!

Click here to read this issue now.

Pentecostal Evangel archived editions courtesy of the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center.

Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: archives@ag.org

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1931 Prophecy Chart by Finis Jennings Dake Deposited at Heritage Center

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A prophecy chart created by Pentecostal Bible teacher Finis Jennings Dake (1902-1987) has been deposited at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center. Dr. Don L. and Lavern Love of Tulsa, Oklahoma, brought the chart, titled “The Plan of the Ages,” to the Heritage Center on August 19, 2015.  The chart was copyrighted in 1927 when Dake was living in Tulsa, Oklahoma.  This particular chart, dated January 31, 1931, was drawn by Carl D. Holleman (1911-2001) when he was 20 years old. Holleman went on to serve as an Assemblies of God missionary to India.

According to oral history, Dake at some point gave this chart to John G. Hall, who had been one of his Bible students for three years at Shiloh Bible Institute in Zion City, Illinois, during the 1930s.  John G. Hall used the chart for a while until he decided to paint his own chart. Then probably in the early 1980s, John G. Hall decided to give this chart to Dr. Hershel A. Brummett, a former president of Southwestern Assemblies of God University, who retained the chart until he passed away in 2014.  The Brummett family gave the chart to Dr. Don and Lavern Love, who in turn now have donated the chart to the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center.  Dr. Love, a chemical engineer, used the chart to teach eschatology in his Sunday school class at The Assembly in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma. The colorful hand-painted chart measures 41 inches by 17 feet and is in remarkably good condition.

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Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: archives@ag.org

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English Nurse Survives Gunfire and Dynamite to Become Pentecostal Pioneer in Kentucky Mountains in 1930s

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This Week in AG History–February 20, 1932
By Darrin Rodgers

Also published in PE News, 19 February 2015

Marion Eason Wakeman, an English nurse, did not intend to become a Pentecostal missionary to the Kentucky mountains. However, she followed her heart and God’s call and ultimately helped to pioneer Assemblies of God churches in the 1930s among some of the most impoverished people in America. Wakeman’s compelling story, which has now largely been forgotten, was published in the February 20, 1932, issue of the “Pentecostal Evangel.”

Wakeman expected to live in England, where she was born, for the rest of her life. In England, she was a nurse and administrator with the “District Nursing Work,” a healthcare system that worked primarily with poor and immigrant patients.

At the turn of the twentieth century, New England was experimenting with this healthcare model, in an attempt to meet the needs of the many recent immigrants. Wakeman was asked to move temporarily to Bristol, Rhode Island, to establish a new “District Nursing Work,” patterned after the English model.

After living in Bristol for three years, Wakeman read a book about the extreme poverty in the mountains of Kentucky. She was particularly disturbed by the unhealthy conditions endured by mothers at childbirth. She wrote, “God laid that work right on my heart, I could not get away from it.” She struggled with whether to stay in her well-funded position in Bristol, or to follow God’s call to work with neglected mothers and children in Kentucky. In the end, she headed for the mountains and cast her lot with those whose future was bleakest.

She began her missionary work in Guerrant, Kentucky. Conditions were worse than she had imagined. Ten to 12 people lived in windowless one-room huts. Children were dressed in rags, and chickens wandered freely through the huts. The men, women, and children were addicted to alcohol and tobacco. Violence was common and education was uncommon.

Wakeman provided health services to people in the community. She also began teaching young people how to read. When she arrived, she was shocked that the children could not read and that their spoken English was very poor. She gathered children for regular English lessons, which she would give by reading from the Bible. She recounted that many adults had never heard about Jesus, never prayed, and had never attended church.

The physical, social, and spiritual needs in the Kentucky mountains were overwhelming to Wakeman. On one occasion she admitted, “My throat ached and I felt like breaking down and crying.” But she endured. She saved money and built a house in the mountains near Oakdale, Kentucky, which became her living quarters and ministry outpost. She later moved to another house near Holly Creek, Kentucky. From those houses, she nursed people to health, she taught Sunday School classes for children, and she led to people to Jesus.

Wakeman understood that spiritual poverty was the root of destructive cultural patterns. She preached against the consumption of drugs such as alcohol and tobacco, because they contributed to disease, addiction, and violence in the community. She encouraged people to turn from sin and to find new life in Christ.

Certain local residents regarded Wakeman’s presence as a threat. She was awakened night after night by hostile neighbors who tried to frighten her away. Guns were fired at her house, and one time dynamite was even exploded near her house. She recalled, “my nerves began to frail,” and that she was afraid to walk across the room when she entered her house, for fear of violence.

One night, Wakeman got on her knees and cried out to God. If He wanted her to stay in Kentucky, she prayed, He would have to remove her fear. God took away her fear that night. The fear “fell from me like an old garment,” she recalled. “I went through the little house singing at the top of my voice,” she wrote. “I haven’t felt any fear from that day to this.”

Wakeman’s early missions work was supported by the Presbyterian Mission Board and the Free Methodist Missionary Board. Wakeman’s study of the Bible ultimately led her to identify with the Pentecostal movement. She came to believe that God still heals, and prayer for healing became a prominent aspect of her ministry. As a Pentecostal, Wakeman worked in conjunction with the Kentucky mountain missions work supported by Christian Assembly (Cincinnati, Ohio), which was pastored by O. E. Nash. Wakeman wrote that the Cincinnati church had five outstations (small missions churches) located in her part of the Kentucky mountains.

Wakeman’s testimony illustrates the consecration of early Pentecostals. She spent her life working with the impoverished, at great personal cost, and helped to lay the foundation for the Assemblies of God in the mountains of Kentucky. Her story also demonstrates that early Pentecostalism did not emerge in a vacuum; it benefited from veteran ministers from mainline Protestant denominations who brought their wisdom, experiences, and connections into their new churches.

“Our hearts are burning with the zeal of the work,” Wakeman wrote in the conclusion of her article, “and we see great possibilities and responsibilities.” Early Pentecostal pioneers, such as Wakeman, were passionate, committed and visionary. Together, these often unheralded men and women helped to form the identity of the Assemblies of God.

Read the article, “Pentecostal Work in the Kentucky Mountains,” on pages 1, 8 and 9 of the February 20, 1932, issue of the Pentecostal Evangel.

Also featured in this issue:

• “The Godhead,” by Ernest S. Williams

• “Pentecost Today,” by R. E. McAlister

And many more!

Click here to read this issue now.

Pentecostal Evangel archived editions courtesy of the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center.

Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: Archives@ag.org

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Early Assemblies of God Schools: Training for Life and Service

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This Week in AG History–November 17, 1917
By Darrin Rodgers

Also published in AG-News, Tue, 18 Nov 2014 – 10:13 AM CST

From the outset, the Assemblies of God promoted the development of educational institutions. The fifth purpose of the “Call to Hot Springs” (the open invitation to Pentecostals to organize what became the Assemblies of God) was “to lay before the body for a General Bible Training School with a literary department for our people.” The phrase “literary department” was used in the 19th and early 20th centuries and roughly corresponds to a “liberal arts school” today. The Assemblies of God was formed, in part, to encourage both ministerial training and liberal arts education.

Initially, the Assemblies of God endorsed several small regional schools. Delegates to the first general council in April 1914 unanimously adopted a resolution that endorsed two schools – one Bible school (The Gospel School, Findlay, Ohio) and one literary school (Neshoba Holiness School, Union, Mississippi). The Ohio school trained ministers and the Mississippi school was a high school that included both liberal arts and technical education.

Assemblies of God leaders recognized the need to train their young people for life and service. In a September 1915 Word and Witness article encouraging parents to send their children to Ozark Bible and Literary School, D. C. O. Opperman wrote:

“Parents! Think of getting your Children out of the corruption of the public schools into a clean good school where God is honored, under teachers, who not only are real instructors, but who love and serve God, are consecrated, Spirit-filled and are thoroughly in love with their work. The teachers that God is sending are not the cheap, shoddy, no account class, they are able, gifted, college bred, experienced, and sent of God. Praise Him! The school itself, we believe is a plan of God, and is a part of His eternal purpose.”

Both the Ohio and Mississippi schools were short-lived. The Assemblies of God endorsement of the Neshoba Holiness School lasted until 1915, when its principal, R. B. Chisolm, left to start a new school, Ozark Bible and Literary School in Eureka Springs, Arkansas. The endorsement of The Gospel School lasted until 1917, when that school merged into Mount Tabor Bible Training School, located in Chicago. The Assemblies of God endorsed each of the successor institutions, which it encouraged its young people to attend.

The November 17, 1917, issue of The Weekly Evangel published an article about Mount Tabor Bible Training School, which was sponsored by Bethel Temple, a large Assemblies of God congregation in Chicago. A photograph of the church’s impressive stone edifice accompanied the article, noting that the school’s urban location provided numerous opportunities for employment and ministry. Practical ministry opportunities abounded: “Missions, Bible Classes in private homes, teaching in Sunday Schools, street work, hospitals, prisons and other institutions, rescue work, visiting the sick and others in need, and in any other ministry to which a door may be opened.”

Mount Tabor was “a school where the entire Bible is believed and taught,” according to the article. Furthermore, “No fads, nor new issues” were welcome at the school. This was a clear to reference to the anti-Trinitarian teachings (also called “New Issue” or Oneness) that caused a large number of ministers to leave the Assemblies of God the previous year. Assemblies of God schools, from the earliest years of the Fellowship, provided young people and budding ministers with balanced biblical education and practical experience in ministry.

Read the article, ” Mount Tabor Bible Training School” on pages 15 and 16 of the November 17, 1917, issue of The Weekly Evangel.

Also featured in this issue:

* “The Sad Effects of the War on the Persian Pentecostal Saints,” by Andrew Urshan

* “Open Doors in Mexico,” by Alice E. Luce

And many more!

Click here to read this issue now.

“Pentecostal Evangel” archived editions courtesy of the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center. For current editions of the Evangel, click here.

Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: Archives@ag.org

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Patten University Archives Deposited at Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center


Patten University, founded as Oakland Bible Institute in 1944 by noted female evangelist Dr. Bebe H. Patten (1913-2004), has long been an important part of the landscape of Oakland, California. Patten started in the ministry as a girl evangelist, graduated from L.I.F.E. Bible College in 1933, and was ordained by the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel in 1934. She was later ordained by a Wesleyan Holiness denomination and subsequently by another Pentecostal denomination. A successful revival crusade in Oakland in 1944 resulted in the formation of the Oakland Bible Institute, Patten Academy of Christian Education, and Christian Cathedral. She also formed Christian Evangelical Churches of America (CECA), which ordained graduates of the university and is a member denomination of the National Association of Evangelicals.

After severe financial difficulties led Patten University to be acquired by UniversityNow, a for-profit educational company in 2013, the school’s Christian mission was changed to a secular one. Following the acquisition, the University’s archives were placed at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center in Springfield, Missouri. In recent years the archives have been developed by long-time Patten educator and administrator Dr. Abraham Ruelas. He is also author of No Room for Doubt: The Life and Ministry of Bebe Patten (Seymour Press, 2012).

The Patten collection includes college yearbooks, catalogs, and periodicals; extensive correspondence relating to Patten and her husband, Carl Thomas Patten; photograph albums and scrapbooks; and other publications and materials. Bebe Patten was a larger-than-life personality, and the bulk of the collection relates to her and her family.

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Do you have Pentecostal historical materials that should be preserved? Please consider depositing these materials at the Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center (FPHC). The FPHC, located in the Assemblies of God national offices, is the largest Pentecostal archive in the world. We would like to preserve and make your treasures accessible to those who write the history books.

Flower Pentecostal Heritage Center
1445 North Boonville Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65802 USA
Phone: 417.862.1447 ext. 4400
Toll Free: 877.840.5200
Email: Archives@ag.org

Leave a comment

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